Computing and Ethics – This chapter has been removed from the current syllabus ( 2021)
I. Fill in the blanks:
1. The crime committed on the internet is called ____________
2. The process of making duplicate copy of the original software illegally is known as ______________________
3. Unwanted emails are called___________________
4. A program which may corrupt the files/documents in your computer is known as _________________
5. ____________________are the cyber criminals who crack the password to access the information from the internet.
6. __________________ is a set of moral values, which regulates the use of computers.
7. It is advised to have _____________software to protect system from viruses.
8. Cyber criminals are punished under ________________.
9. _______________ is a threat which corrupts the system and cannot be blocked by an antivirus software.
10. ______________ can be used to protect any document on the Internet.
2. software piracy
8. cyber laws
9. malicious code
II. Write short notes on:
1. Software piracy
When we purchase an original software, we become the licensed user and we get the right to use it. However, we cannot make copies of this software and load it in other computers. Thus, when someone copies a software without buying the appropriate license or copyright, it is known as software piracy. Piracy can come in many forms:
i) Licensed user duplication for unlicensed users
ii) Illegal internet distribution
Sometimes when we connect to a website and open our email account, we find that our inbox is filled with many unwanted emails. Often, the titles of these messages are very fascinating and they compel us to read the message. Such messages are called spam and they contain commercial advertising, dubious products or get-rich-quick schemes. Spam messages waste the valuable time of the users and also occupy memory space of the system. Sometimes spam may also come with virus files that corrupt the systems.
3. Cyber crime
Crimes such as illegal copying of software, computer viruses, stealing of hardware data and other computer related crimes or online computer crimes are called Cybercrimes. Cyber criminals take advantage of the lapses and negligence in the computer system and gain unauthorized access and retrieve data from other people’s computers. Cyber criminals can be divided into various groups on the basis of their objectives as follows:
- Organised hackers
- Professional hackers / crackers
- Discontent employees
The skills and knowledge of computer systems are applied in illegal activities like breaking passwords, releasing viruses to corrupt the system or stealing valuable data. Hackers are people who use their computer expertise to gain illegal access to confidential data in the systems. Hackers run publicly available programs that automate attempts to break into systems. Hackers also merge wrong information, viruses or corrupt data in the users’ data and thus corrupt the computer systems.
Hacking is usually done due to one of the following reasons:
- Theft of services
- To take valuable files
- For thrill and excitement
- Mental disease
- For knowledge and experiment
5. Software copyright
Ans. Intellectual property means “Ownership of Ideas” i.e. the software/program that is originally developed by the person(s), becomes the intellectual property of the developers.Copyright prohibits the users of a software program from making copies of it without the permission of the person or the company concerned which issues the license for the program
6. Cyber Law
- The ‘Information Technology Law’ is also known as Cyber Law. Thus, cyberlaw is the area of law that deals with the Internet’s relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, hardware, software and Information Systems.
- Cyberlaws prevent or reduce large scale damage from cybercriminal activities.
- They protect Privacy, Intellectual Property and Freedom of Speech related to the use of Internet, Cell phones, Computers (Hardware and Software).
- Since cyberlaws vary by jurisdiction and country, enforcement is challenging and punishments for Cybercrimes can range from fines to imprisonment.
III. Answer the following questions:
1. What do ethics mean? Mention at least five ethical values related to computers.
Ans. Ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the behaviour of a group or an individual. Some common issues of computer ethics include Intellectual Property Rights, Privacy concerns and how computers affect society. Some of the following ethical values are necessary to foster good relations with the concerned people, which will help to make a healthy environment.
- Software must not be installed or uninstalled without the permission of the owner.
- Follow the rules and regulations while working in a computer lab.
- Secret information should not be stolen from other computers.
- Unpaid software and proprietary software must not be copied or used.
- Confidential documents should be protected using a password.
2. How will you protect your data on the internet?
Ans. The following precautions must be followed to protect data:
- Passwords and account information must not be disclosed to others.
- Unwanted or free software must not be downloaded. It may corrupt the system.
- Unwanted emails offering different schemes and free gifts must not be opened.
- Install high quality antivirus programs of a reputed company in the computer to protect it against viruses.
3. What is meant by malicious code?
Ans. Malicious code refers to a new kind of threat, which cannot be blocked by using an antivirus software and which corrupts the system in due course of time. Malicious code is any program that acts in unexpected and potentially damaging ways (e.g. Trojan Horse). It can attack the infrastructure of a system and can change, delete, insert or even transmit data outside the institution. Malicious code may hide in different forms and enter our system while:
- Working on Emails
- Surfing websites
- Downloading files/documents/software
Antivirus tools and code blocking are not comprehensive solutions for malicious code. Protection from malicious code involves limiting the capabilities of the server and web applications to only functions necessary to support the file.
4. How will you protect your system from malicious intent and malicious code?
Ans. The following precautions can protect the system against malicious code.
- Using high quality antivirus or signature-based antivirus
- Suppose the downloading of software seems suspicious, then stop downloading immediately.
- Avoid the use of pirated and unauthorised software since it causes great damage to the system.
- Avoid using other peoples pen drives, memory cards etc which may be virus infected. If necessary, scan and use them.
- Emails from unknown sources should not be opened. They should be deleted before opening.
5. What are the advantages of Cyber law? Mention any five.
- Cyberlaws prevent or reduce large scale damage from cybercriminal activities.
- Cyberlaws protect Information Privacy and also ensure Hardware and Software security.
- Cyber laws allow governments to issue notification on the web.
- Cyber laws allow companies to carry out electronic commerce using the legal infrastructure provided by laws.
- Cyber laws also regulate the Freedom of Speech related to the use of Internet, Cell phones, Computers.
6. How will you avoid software piracy? Explain.
Software piracy can be avoided by taking the following preventive steps:
- Software bought must always be from a reputed organisation. If doubtful, firstname.lastname@example.org should be contacted.
- Confirm that newly bought software comes with a license agreement, original disk and authentic packaging.
- Buying multiple software titles from different publishers on a single disk must be avoided.
- If the seller provides a serial number other than the one mentioned in the package, it indicates that the software is not authentic.
7. What are the different ways to stop spam?
Ans. Spam causes serious problems to our system. However, spam can be stopped by installing a good antivirus software (also known as filters) in our computer system. Some useful filters are Spam attack, Spam Hater etc. Reading email messages from unrecognized senders must be avoided and they must be deleted.
8. What role can you play to stop Cybercrimes? Explain.
Precautions against cybercrimes can be listed as follows:
- Personal identity or personal information should not be disclosed online.
- Personal photographs and files should not be sent to strangers and online friends.
- The updated and latest antivirus software must be used to guard against virus attacks.
- A back-up of data must be maintained to prevent loss of data due to virus contamination.
- Credit / Debit card numbers should not be entered in sites that may not be secure.
- Web servers running public sites should be separated and protected from the internal corporate network ***********************************